Health

Normal Blood Sugar Levels By Age (Chart)

Blood sugar

Blood sugar levels are a crucial measurement of overall health, and it’s essential to be aware of the optimal range for your age group. While individual targets may vary based on age, health conditions, and lifestyle, understanding typical ranges can offer valuable insight into your body’s performance.

It’s important to remember that the following information serves as a general guide. If you have any concerns about your blood sugar, it is imperative to consult with your healthcare provider for a thorough evaluation. There is no universal “normal” blood sugar level—your specific target number depends on various personal health and lifestyle factors.

Continue reading to discover more about blood sugar, its connection to overall health, normal level ranges, and indicators of abnormal blood sugar.

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What Is Blood Sugar?

Blood sugar, also known as glucose, is the body’s primary source of sugar, derived from the carbohydrates in the foods we eat. It is crucial for supplying energy to cells, including brain cells, throughout the body.

Throughout the day, blood sugar levels fluctuate due to various factors such as eating, exercising, and sleeping, as well as stress and hormones. For individuals with diabetes, monitoring blood sugar levels closely is essential to keep them within the optimal range, often determined by a healthcare provider.

When blood sugar levels deviate from the target range, it can have serious health consequences, including nerve damage, kidney damage, and heart disease. As noted by Brenda Peralta, a registered dietitian and certified diabetes educator at FeastGood.com, high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) can lead to conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Conversely, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can result in symptoms such as confusion, anxiety, weakness, sweating, and vision problems, with extremely low levels potentially causing seizures and fainting.

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Why Does Blood Sugar Matter With Diabetes?

Diabetes is a complex condition that disrupts the body’s ability to regulate glucose levels naturally. When someone lives with diabetes, their body struggles to produce enough insulin or make it available for use. Insulin, as a vital hormone, helps the body use glucose effectively for energy. When insulin levels are insufficient, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, causing potential harm to vital organs and tissues.

According to Jennifer Meller, M.D., the chief medical officer at Sweetch, a digital health care innovation company in Tel Aviv, Israel, diabetes occurs when the body fails to effectively manage sugar intake from our everyday diet. Chronically high sugar levels can lead to significant damage in both large and small blood vessels.

Over time, the impact on major blood vessels increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes. On the other hand, damage to small blood vessels can cause complications like nerve damage, vision loss, and kidney failure, as explained by Dr. Meller.

For individuals living with diabetes, maintaining healthy blood sugar levels is crucial to prevent severe health complications in the future. Achieving this requires knowledge of target glucose levels for different age groups and adjusting lifestyle habits accordingly. Blood sugar levels can fluctuate depending on factors such as diet, timing, and other influences. Therefore, understanding these factors and making appropriate lifestyle changes are paramount to effectively managing diabetes and ensuring overall well-being.

Cardioplegia Solution and Glucose Levels

What Is an A1C Number?

An A1C test, also known as glycosylated hemoglobin, is a crucial diagnostic tool utilized to measure an individual’s average blood sugar levels over the past three months (90 days). It provides valuable insight into how well blood sugar is being controlled during that period.

“It’s an essential measure of blood sugar control in diabetes because it offers a long-term perspective on blood sugar levels and can help predict the risk of complications associated with diabetes,” explains Peralta.

During the test, a small blood sample is used to analyze the amount of hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen and binds to glucose molecules. The A1C test detects the amount of hemoglobin that has bound to glucose, indicating the level of glucose in the bloodstream. This test is often conducted with a simple finger prick in the doctor’s office.

An A1C number is expressed as a percentage, with higher percentages indicating higher levels of glucose in the bloodstream. A healthy A1C reading for individuals without diabetes typically falls between 4% and 5.7%. A value ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% is considered prediabetic, while a reading of 6.5% and higher is consistent with diabetes[1].

It is important to note that one’s A1C number can be affected by other medical conditions such as anemia, potentially leading to an inaccurate reading. This is why it is often recommended to consider additional numbers, such as fasting glucose, in conjunction with the A1C number.

How Is Blood Sugar Tested?

Blood sugar is frequently measured using a glucometer, an essential device that quantifies the glucose levels in a blood sample. A small droplet of blood from the fingertip or arm is applied onto a test strip, which is then inserted into the glucometer. In a matter of moments, the results are exhibited on the glucometer’s LCD screen.

In certain circumstances, a physician may also order additional tests, such as a fasting glucose test or an oral glucose tolerance test. These particular examinations provide an evaluation of glucose levels in the blood at specific moments such as before fasting or after a meal

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Accuracy: Provides highly accurate test results, crucial for effective diabetes management.
Ease of Use: No coding required and straightforward testing process.
Comprehensive Kit: Includes all necessary components for immediate use.
Portability: Comes with a storage bag, making it convenient to carry and use anywhere.
Accurate Measurements: The AUVON Blood Glucose Monitor provides precise blood glucose readings. It has passed laboratory tests to ensure high accuracy, with 95% of measurements falling within ±10mg/dL of laboratory reference values.
User-Friendly Design: No coding is required, simplifying the testing process.
Comprehensive Tracking: It helps users keep track of their glucose levels, essential for managing diabetes effectively.
Preparation: Insert a battery into the glucometer if it’s not already installed.
Load the Lancing Device: Insert a lancet into the lancing device and adjust the depth setting according to your comfort level.
Obtain a Blood Sample: Prick the side of your fingertip using the lancing device to obtain a drop of blood.
Apply Blood to Test Strip: Insert a test strip into the glucometer. Apply the blood sample to the test strip.
Read the Results: Wait for the glucometer to display your blood glucose level, usually within seconds.
Record the Data: Use the included log book to record your results, which helps in tracking and managing your glucose levels over time.

Pros:
High Accuracy: Reliable results that are critical for diabetes management.
Ease of Use: Simple operation with no need for coding.
Comprehensive Kit: Everything needed for testing is included.
Portability: Compact size and included storage bag make it easy to carry.

Cons:
Discomfort from Finger Pricks: As with all blood glucose monitors, finger pricking can be uncomfortable.

1 x AUVON Blood Glucose Monitor
50 x Blood Test Strips
50 x 30 Gauge Lancets
1 x Lancing Device
1 x Storage Bag
1 x Battery
1 x Log Book
1 x Meter User Guide
1 x Test Strip User Guide

Package Dimensions and Battery Information
Package Dimensions: 6.57 x 3.66 x 2.05 inches
Weight: 6.74 ounces
Battery: 1 Lithium Metal battery required (included)

When to Test Blood Sugar

For individuals living with diabetes, it is crucial to determine the appropriate times for testing their blood sugar levels. While testing before meals and before bed is a standard practice, it is important to note that the frequency may vary based on individual conditions. Upon consultation with a doctor, they may advise testing as often as two hours after eating and even during the night, depending on specific health needs.

In addition to the recommended standard times, there are other instances where it is essential to test blood sugar levels:

Following unintentional misadministration of diabetes medication at the incorrect time, testing ensures timely action to maintain optimal blood sugar control.

After mistakenly taking excessive insulin or diabetes medication, immediate testing helps prevent any further complications.

Commencing new medications calls for vigilant testing to observe any potential effects on blood sugar.

Both before and after exercising, testing helps in understanding the impact of physical activity on blood sugar levels and adjusting accordingly.

When consuming alcohol, it is essential to monitor blood sugar levels as it can impact glucose metabolism.

During times of heightened stress, testing allows for better management of blood sugar levels and overall well-being.

If feeling unwell, testing can provide valuable insights into how the illness is affecting blood sugar levels.

Following meals at restaurants or when trying new foods, testing should be considered to assess the impact on blood sugar levels.

When experiencing symptoms associated with low blood sugar, such as dizziness, sweating, or confusion, immediate testing becomes imperative.

By following these guidelines and engaging in regular consultations with a healthcare professional, individuals can ensure that they are testing their blood sugar at appropriate and necessary times. This practice empowers them to effectively manage their diabetes and safeguard their overall health.

Blood sugar levels by age: children, adults, and seniors.

It is essential to understand that normal blood sugar levels vary depending on age, lifestyle factors, and health conditions.

The following chart provides insights from various studies, including those conducted by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Johns Hopkins Medicine. It illustrates the recommended blood sugar levels by age. The chart has been reviewed by Dr. Meller.

Normal Fasting Glucose (without diabetes) Fasting Glucose Level (indicative of diabetes) Target Glucose Range (before meals for those with type 2 diabetes) HbA1c (in those without diabetes) HbA1c (in those with possible prediabetes) HbA1c (indicative of diabetes) HbA1c (target goal for those with diabetes)

Children and Adolescents Less than or equal to 100 mg/dL Greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL 80 to 130 mg/dL Less than 5.7 5.7-6.4 Greater than or equal to 6.5 Less than or equal to 7.0

Adults Less than or equal to 100 mg/dL Greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL 80 to 130 mg/dL Less than 5.7 5.7-6.4 Greater than or equal to 6.5 Less than or equal to 7.0

Older adults Less than or equal to 100 mg/dL Greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL 80 to 150 or 170 mg/dL Less than 5.7 5.7-6.4 Greater than or equal to 6.5 Less than or equal to 7.5-8.0

Disclaimer: These are general guidelines and might vary depending on individual health circumstances. This table should not be used to alter an existing treatment plan. It is recommended that individuals consult their doctors to determine the appropriate target range for them.

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This kit allows you to test your blood sugar and ketone levels at home using finger pricks. The meter provides easy-to-read results, and the free app helps you track your progress over time.
Insert a test strip into the meter.
Prick your finger with the lancing device.
Apply a blood sample to the test strip.
The meter will display your blood sugar and ketone levels.
Sync your results with the free app for further analysis.

Pros:
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Bluetooth connectivity for easy data tracking
Free app with comprehensive features
Large memory capacity
Lifetime warranty

Cons:
Requires finger pricking (may be uncomfortable for some)
Test strips need to be purchased separately (can be expensive)

Keto-Mojo GK+ Bluetooth Meter
10 Glucose test strips
10 Ketone test strips
Lancing device
20 Lancets
Control solutions for glucose and ketones
Carrying case
2 AAA batteries

Fasting vs. Non-Fasting Blood Sugar Levels

Fasting and non-fasting blood sugar tests are used to screen individuals for diabetes and prediabetes.

Fasting blood sugar tests measure blood sugar levels after an eight-hour period of not eating and are typically conducted in the morning before breakfast. These tests can indicate if someone is prediabetic or diabetic based on the following ranges:

Normal: 99 mg/dL or lower
Prediabetes: 100 mg/dL to 125 mg/dL
Diabetes: 126 mg/dL or higher

Non-fasting blood sugar tests do not require individuals to refrain from eating beforehand. These tests can indicate if someone is prediabetic or diabetic based on the following ranges:

Normal: 140 mg/dL or lower
Prediabetes: 140 mg/dL to 199 mg/dL
Diabetes: 200 mg/dL or higher
Fasting Blood Sugar Normal Range

Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms of Imbalanced Blood Sugar

Consistently high or low blood sugar levels can manifest in various signs and symptoms. According to Peralta and Dr. Meller, the following are common indications of imbalanced blood sugar:

Symptoms of high blood sugar include:

Excessive thirst
Frequent urination
Fatigue
Blurred vision
Delayed wound healing
Weight loss
Frequent infections

Symptoms of high blood sugar include:

Hunger
Trembling
Sweating
Rapid heartbeat
Headache
Dizziness
Confusion and difficulty focusing

The Danger Zone: Critical Blood Sugar Levels

Low blood sugar, also known as hypoglycemia, occurs when glucose levels drop below 70 mg/dL. Severe episodes of low blood sugar are defined by levels below 54 mg/dL and can result in loss of consciousness. This condition is common in individuals with type 1 diabetes and requires prompt treatment.

High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, occurs when glucose levels rise to 240 mg/dL or higher. If left untreated, hyperglycemia can lead to ketoacidosis, a potentially life-threatening condition commonly referred to as diabetic coma.

What level of blood glucose is dangerous

What is considered a dangerous level of blood sugar?

Low blood sugar, known as hypoglycemia, occurs when an individual’s glucose levels drop below 70 mg/dL. Severe hypoglycemia occurs when glucose levels fall below 54 mg/dL and can lead to fainting. This condition is common in individuals with type 1 diabetes and needs to be treated.

On the other hand, high blood sugar, also known as hyperglycemia, occurs when an individual’s glucose levels rise to 240 mg/dL or higher. If left untreated, hyperglycemia can lead to ketoacidosis, a serious condition commonly referred to as diabetic coma.

Ketones are waste products that the body produces when it breaks down fats due to a lack of insulin. Large quantities of ketones can be harmful, and they are eliminated from the body through urine. However, if the body is unable to excrete a significant amount of ketones through urine, they can accumulate in the bloodstream, resulting in elevated ketone levels. This can lead to a condition called ketoacidosis, which is a medical emergency. Ketoacidosis occurs when ketones cause the blood to become more acidic and requires prompt medical intervention.

What to Do When Blood Sugar is Too High or Low

Blood Sugar is Too High or Low

In case you’re dealing with hypoglycemia, you have several options for treatment:

Take four glucose tablets.
Drink 4 ounces of fruit juice, like apple or orange juice.
Consume 4 ounces of soda.
Eat four pieces of hard candy.

After attempting to raise your blood sugar, you should test your levels again 15 minutes later to see if they have reached 70 mg/dL or higher. If your levels are still low, continue one of the above treatments until your blood sugar returns to normal.

On the other hand, if you’re experiencing hyperglycemia, it’s important to measure your ketone levels using an over-the-counter test kit. If your ketone levels are above 80 mg/dL, seek immediate medical attention.

If your blood sugar levels are high, but a urine test shows normal ketone levels, you can try the following options to help lower your blood sugar:

Stay hydrated: Dehydration can cause your blood sugar to become more concentrated, leading to higher glucose levels. Increasing your water intake can help regulate blood sugar by introducing more water into your bloodstream.

Get more exercise: Physical activity makes your body more sensitive to insulin and lowers your blood sugar for up to 24 hours after exercising. However, if you have ketones, avoid exercising as it may cause your blood sugar to rise even higher.

Manage stress: Stress can contribute to elevated blood sugar levels. Learning healthy ways to cope with stress, such as listening to music or going for a walk, can help combat high blood sugar.

Get enough sleep: Research shows that poor sleep quality can negatively impact your body’s ability to control blood sugar levels. Aim to get seven to eight hours of sleep per night. If you suspect you have a sleep disorder, consult with your healthcare provider.

Count carbohydrates: Carbohydrates break down into glucose during digestion and can cause blood sugar levels to rise. Counting carbs can help manage blood sugar levels and assist some individuals with diabetes in ensuring they receive adequate insulin.

When should you discuss blood sugar with a doctor?

Diabetes is a serious condition that requires attention. It is crucial to discuss any concerns about your blood sugar levels with your doctor. Your healthcare provider can order tests to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes and provide essential treatment recommendations. They can also offer guidance on lifestyle changes to help you maintain your blood sugar within the recommended target range.

Taking proactive steps to monitor and manage your blood sugar levels is essential for preserving good health and avoiding the long-term complications of diabetes. With proper care and regular check-ups, managing your blood sugar levels is highly achievable.

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